The Struggles with Immune Biomarkers and Pathologic Endotypes in Type 1 Diabetes

Time: 2:00 pm
day: Day One


  • Immune biomarkers exhibit substantial longitudinal variation in humans, they have so far failed to predict individual trajectories
  • Pathologically in the human pancreas there is little evidence for completely different endotypes/pathways comparing individuals
  • We have, to date, no reliable marker for antigenic tolerance that correlate reliably with clinical endpoints – learning across diseases will be needed